Dyspnoea – Differential Diagnosis

Red flags
  • Acute onset /severe dyspnoea
  • Associated features
  • Cyanosis
  • Confusion
  • Haemoptysis
  • Chest pain
  • Hypotension, sweating
  • ‘Silent chest’
  • Systemic symptoms (weight loss, night sweats, fever)
Investigations to consider
  • FBC, CRP/ESR, D-dimers
  • U+Es, LFTs, TFTs, Serum glucose
  • BNP, Cardiac enzymes
  • Pulse oximetry, ABGs
  • PEFR, Spirometry
  • Sputum analysis
  • ECG
  • CXR
  • CT scan
  • Echocardiography, 24 hour ECG
  • V/Q scan
  • Pulmonary angiography

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